Oncological Check-up


As you know cancer is a global problem because this is one of leading causes of death (both men and women)

To date, two thirds of all cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. One of them is Cambodia.

Amount of cancer patients worldwide and in Cambodia continue to increase every year. Worldwide: 12,7 million new cases in 2008 and 14,1 million in 2012. In Cambodia: in 2008 there were 12,900 new cases of cancer; in 2012 this amount increased until 15,216 cases (in 1,2 times per 4 years).

The main cancer types worldwide are:

  • Lung cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Stomach cancer

The main cancer types in Cambodia are:

  • Liver cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Colorectal cancer

Risk factors for cancers:

  • Aging.  Cancer is primarily a disease of older people, with incidence rates increasing with age for most cancers. Cancer is relatively rare in children, teenagers and young adults. Adults aged 50 – 74 carry the greatest burden of cancer, with over half (53%) of all cancers being diagnosed in this age group. Over a third (36%) of all cancers are diagnosed in the elderly (75 and more years old).
  • Tobacco use,
  • Alcohol use,
  • Unhealthy diet and obesity (overweight),
  • Physical inactivity,
  • Environmental and occupational exposures to carcinogens and mutagens (including chemicals and radiation),
  • Infectious agents (Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus),
  • Chronic inflammation (nose, throat…),
  • Hormone dysmetabolism,
  • Family history (genetic factors).

Approximately one-third cancer deaths can be prevented. One most important method of cancer prevention is early detection of cancer. This method includes:

    1. Early diagnosis of cancer (helps oncology check-up) – to find early signs and symptoms of some oncology diseases (for cancer types such as cervical, breast, colorectal and oral) in order to get them diagnosed and treated early before the disease becomes advanced.
    2. Screening – is defined as the systematic application of a test in an asymptomatic population. Screening programs are especially effective for frequent cancer types for which a cost-effective, affordable, acceptable and accessible screening test is available to the majority of the population at risk. Examples of screening methods are:
  • PAP smear test for cervical cancer;
  • Mammography screening for breast cancer.

Early common symptoms of cancer (signals of cancer):

  • Thickening / lump anywhere,
  • Persistent pallor or jaundice,
  • Skin or mouth sores that do not heal or changes in mole or wart. (Раны, которые не заживают или изменения в родинке или бородавкe) Old scar that repeatedly heals and brakes down. Obvious change in wart, mole, birthmark or any other spot or the skin,
  • Severe recurrent headaches with or without vomiting; epileptic fits (convulsions),
  • A bothersome (надоедливый) persistent cough, blood in sputum; hoarseness of voice.
  • Bleeding from the nose or changes in hearing,
  • A lump, bleeding or changes in the breast or nipple,
  • “Unreasonably”  lost appetite, lost weight, weakness,
  • “Unreasonably” low grade fever (37,2 – 37,4),
  • Difficulty in swallowing, persistent indigestion and abdominal discomfort or pain,
  • Changes in bowel habits, such us  bleeding (blood in stool), constipation and diarrhea,
  • Blood in urine; change in bladder habits,
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding and discharge; contact bleeding after intercourse,
  • Unexplained bleeding anywhere of the body.

You need oncology check-up if:

  • You have any risk – factors of cancer,
  • You have signs about which I said before,
  • You have family members who have oncology diseases,
  • You are older than 50 years old.

Oncology check-up include:

  • Consultation with oncologist,
  • Laboratory tests include blood film morphology, tumor markers and  stool examination for occult blood
  • X-ray chest
  • Abdominal ultrasonography
  • Breast examination for women include breast ultrasonography for all women and  mammography for women 40 years old and older
  • Pap-smear for women.

Which types of tumors can we suspect during this examination?

  1. Leukemia (“blood cancer”),
  2. Lymphoma (malignant tumor of lymphatic tissue),
  3. Head and neck tumors,
  4. Lung cancer,
  5. Breast cancer,
  6. Gastro-intestinal cancer,
  7. Liver cancer,
  8. Cervical cancer,
  9. Ovarian cancer,
  10. Endometrial cancer,
  11. Prostate cancer,
  12. Kidney and bladder cancer ect.

In the case we will find abnormalities in tests’ results, we will recommend detailed examination of the specific area (CT-scan, MRI-scan, bone marrow aspiration, biopsy, consultation of specialists – ENT, endoscopist, oncologist-urologist ect.).

Kindly note, that early diagnosed cancer is easy and cheaper for treatment!

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